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Precision Castparts Corp  (PCP)
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Precision Castparts Corp Segments

 
Investment Cast Products
   27.81 % of total Revenue
Forged Products
   39.57 % of total Revenue
Fastener Products
   32.62 % of total Revenue
 

Business Segments (Sep. 30, 2015)
Revenues
(in millions $)
II. Quarter
%
(of total Revenues)
(Sep. 30, 2015)
Income
(in millions $)
II. Quarter
%
(Profit Margin)
Investment Cast Products
636.00 27.81 % 233.00 36.64 %
Forged Products
905.00 39.57 % 169.00 18.67 %
Fastener Products
746.00 32.62 % 191.00 25.6 %
Total
2,287.00 100 % 593.00 25.93 %

• View Income Statement • View Competition by Segment • View Annual Report

Growth rates by Segment (Sep. 30, 2015)
Y/Y Revenue
%
II. Quarter
Q/Q Revenue
%
(Sep. 30, 2015)
Y/Y Income
%
II. Quarter
Q/Q Income
%
Investment Cast Products
0.79 % 0.63 % 2.64 % -1.69 %
Forged Products
-15.81 % -9.59 % -36.47 % -17.16 %
Fastener Products
-8.58 % -4.24 % -22.98 % -12.39 %
Total
-9.32 % -5.18 % -19.97 % -10.02 %

• View Growth rates • View Competitors Segment Growth • View Market Share

To get more information on Precision Castparts's Investment Cast Products, Forged Products, Fastener Products, Total segment. Select each division with the arrow.

  Precision Castparts's

Business Segments Description



Investment Cast Products

Our Investment Cast Products segment includes our subsidiaries PCC Structurals, PCC Airfoils and Specialty Materials and Alloys Group (“SMAG”). These operations manufacture investment castings for aircraft engines, industrial gas turbine engines, airframes, medical prostheses and other industrial applications primarily in the aerospace and power generation markets. The segment also provides alloys and waxes to PCC’s investment casting operations, as well as to other investment casting companies.

We are the market leader in manufacturing large, complex structural investment castings, and we are the leading manufacturer of airfoil investment castings used in jet aircraft engines. We manufacture investment castings for every jet aircraft engine program in production or under development by our key customers. We are also the market leader in manufacturing structural and airfoil investment castings for industrial gas turbine (“IGT”) and aeroderivative engines used for electric power generation, and we have expanded into the structural airframe and armament markets. In addition, we make investment castings for use in the automotive, medical prosthesis, satellite launch vehicle and general industrial markets.

Investment casting technology involves a technical, multi-step process that uses ceramic molds in the manufacture of metal components with more complex shapes, closer tolerances and finer surface finishes than parts manufactured using other casting methods. The investment casting process begins with the creation of a wax pattern of the part to be cast, along with wax gates and risers to create pathways through which molten metal can flow into the ceramic mold. A ceramic shell is then formed around the wax pattern, followed by melting and draining the wax from the ceramic shell. Finally, molten metal is poured into the ceramic shell, the shell is removed after the metal cools, and the part undergoes final processing and inspection.

Because of the complexity of the manufacturing process and the application of proprietary technologies, we believe we are currently one of the few manufacturers that can consistently produce the largest, complex, structural investment castings in quantities sufficient to meet our customers’ quality and delivery requirements. Our emphasis on low-cost, high-quality products and timely delivery has enabled us to become the leading supplier of structural and airfoil castings for jet aircraft and IGT engines and to expand into the structural airframe and armament markets.

Large jet aircraft engines are manufactured by a small number of suppliers, including General Electric (“GE”), Pratt & Whitney (a division of United Technologies Co.), Rolls-Royce and several joint ventures. As a result, we believe a high level of customer service and strong, long-term customer relationships will continue to be important to achieving our goals. We have been supplying castings for jet engines to GE for more than 40 years, and we have been supplying Pratt & Whitney with castings for more than 30 years for its military and commercial jet engines. In addition, we have supplied small structural investment castings to Rolls-Royce for nearly 25 years and large structural castings for nearly 20 years, most recently for use in its Trent series of jet aircraft engines. As we have been able to cast larger and more complex parts, manufacturers of large jet aircraft engines have made increasing use of our structural castings.

Aerospace Structural Castings

Our structural castings business includes the largest diameter stainless steel, nickel-based superalloy and titanium investment castings in the world, as well as a variety of smaller structural castings. These castings are stationary components that form portions of the fan, compressor, combustor and turbine sections of a jet aircraft engine, where strength and structural integrity are critical. Structural investment castings are sold primarily as original equipment to jet aircraft engine manufacturers.

We believe that trends in the manufacturing of aircraft jet engines will continue to increase our revenue per engine. As the design of new generation aircraft engines has emphasized increased thrust, higher fuel efficiency and reduction of noise and exhaust emissions, engine operating temperatures and pressures have increased. These conditions require the use of engine parts made of alloys that are able to withstand extreme operating conditions and provide an optimum strength-to-weight ratio. Many of these alloys are particularly suited for use in the investment castings we manufacture. In addition, titanium, a metal with a lower melting temperature than stainless steel or superalloys, is used in all but the hottest parts of the engine because of its considerable weight savings. Titanium is an exceptionally difficult metal to cast because of its reaction with other elements. However, we have developed the advanced technology and manufacturing processes to cast large, complex investment castings in titanium alloys. Many new generation engines, which are expected to be built through the next decade and beyond, make significantly greater use of our products than did previous engine designs.

We have also expanded into the structural airframes market through the production of airframe components manufactured primarily from titanium and aluminum alloys. Aircraft manufacturers have shown substantial interest in using investment castings for airframe applications such as titanium aileron and flap hinges, pylons (engine mounts), wing spars and wing ribs, as well as aluminum alloy nacelle segments (thrust reversers), cascades, aircraft access doors, electronic boxes and pump housings for hydraulic and fuel systems.

In February 2007, we completed the acquisition of GSC Foundries, Inc. (“GSC”), a leading manufacturer of aluminum and steel structural investment castings for aerospace, energy, medical, and other end markets. GSC enhances our small structural investment casting portfolio, enabling us both to produce larger aluminum and smaller steel components than those in our current product line and to extend our product reach.

Aerospace Airfoil Castings

We manufacture precision cast airfoils, which include the stationary vanes and rotating blades used in the turbine section of jet aircraft engines. This part of the engine is considered the “hot section”, where temperatures may exceed 2,400 degrees Fahrenheit. These conditions require use of special nickel-based superalloys and state-of-the-art casting techniques to manufacture airfoil castings with internal cooling passages that enable the airfoils to operate in an environment with temperatures higher than the melting point of the metal.

We use various casting technologies to produce turbine airfoils. We employ conventional casting processes to produce equiaxed airfoil castings, in which the metal grains are oriented randomly throughout the casting. A more advanced process enables us to produce directionally solidified (“DS”) airfoil castings, in which the metal grains are aligned longitudinally. This alignment decreases the internal stress on the weakest portion of a metal part where the various grains adjoin, thereby providing increased strength and improved efficiencies in engine performance over equiaxed parts. An even more advanced process enables us to produce single crystal (“SX”) airfoil castings, which consist of one large superalloy crystal without grain boundaries. SX castings provide greater strength and performance characteristics than either equiaxed or DS castings, as well as longer engine life.

As engine sizes grow to generate greater thrust for larger aircraft, the turbine sections of these engines must work harder and burn hotter. As a result, the major aircraft engine manufacturers have increasingly been designing their engines with a greater number of DS and SX blades. The DS and SX cast airfoils we build, with their complex cooling passages, have been instrumental in enabling these engines to operate at higher temperatures. SX cast airfoils are used in both new and redesigned engines where performance requirements are higher.

The demand for aerospace airfoil castings is determined primarily by the number and type of engines required for new jet aircraft; the intervals between hot section maintenance, which are driven by engine cycles (takeoffs and landings); and the inventory levels of replacement parts maintained by the principal jet aircraft engine manufacturers and repair centers. A jet engine’s airfoil components have shorter useful lives than structural investment castings and are replaced periodically during engine maintenance. As a result, our sales of aerospace airfoil castings are less affected by the cyclical patterns of the aerospace industry than are our sales of structural investment castings. The timing for replacement of aerospace airfoil castings principally depends on engine cycles and the expected life of the airfoil casting. Based upon information from our major customers, we believe that more than half of our sales of airfoil castings used in aircraft turbine engines are replacement parts.

IGT Castings

In fiscal 1994, we began to manufacture investment castings for IGT engines. Due to contractual gains over the past several years, our market share has increased significantly, and we believe we are the leading supplier of investment castings used in IGT engines. Domestic IGT production began a significant decline in calendar 2001 due to weak economic conditions and falling demand for power generation capacity, mitigated slightly by continued international growth. However, stronger aftermarket activity began to emerge in fiscal 2005, as IGT engines delivered before the decline required overhaul and replacement of critical components. In fiscal 2006, the market started to flatten, and PCC’s IGT business benefited from continued market share gains and the beginning stages of a recovery in OEM deliveries. Our IGT products consist of airfoil castings and high-temperature combustion hardware used in large, land-based gas turbines designed for electrical power generation. In addition, we manufacture structural and airfoil castings for aeroderivative gas turbine engines, which are also used for power generation, as well as for other commercial and military land and marine-based applications.

IGT manufacturers have significantly improved the efficiency and reduced the emissions profiles of industrial gas turbines, principally by incorporating advanced components in new engines as well as in refurbished and upgraded turbines in the field. We have leveraged our DS and SX airfoil casting knowledge from the aerospace market into the IGT market to produce blades and vanes that are better able to withstand the extreme heat and stresses of new higher-temperature gas turbines. IGT engines are built with investment castings that are similar, but generally larger, than the blades and vanes we manufacture for the aerospace market. Because of their size, IGT airfoils are generally more difficult to cast than smaller aerospace airfoils with the same properties.

Since industrial gas turbines are primarily used in electrical power generation, castings sales for new IGT engines are tied to the growth of global electricity consumption, while demand for replacement parts depends on the size and utilization rate of the installed base.

Other Investment Casting Products

Our strategy for profitable growth also includes the pursuit of other opportunities for our existing investment casting technology. We have been expanding the application of our investment casting technology in the medical prosthesis, automotive, satellite and general industrial markets by manufacturing such products as artificial hips and knees, turbocharger wheels, parts for satellite launch vehicles, and impellers for pumps and compressors. In addition, we are manufacturing an increasing number of large titanium components for armament systems, including the BAE lightweight howitzer, which entered full-scale production in fiscal 2005.

Specialty Materials and Alloys

Our Specialty Materials and Alloys (“SMAG”) operation principally provides alloys and waxes to the Company’s investment casting operations, as well as to other companies with investment casting or other foundry operations. SMAG is comprised of Cannon Muskegon, M. Argüeso & Company (“Argüeso”), and Greenville Metals, Inc.

Cannon Muskegon principally produces alloys used by manufacturers of investment castings, which include several patented and trademarked alloys formulated specifically for the casting of directionally solidified and single crystal airfoils that operate in high-temperature, high-stress engine environments. Cannon Muskegon supplies alloys to us, as well as to other companies with investment casting operations. The alloys produced by Cannon Muskegon also serve such diverse markets as medical, recreational and general industrial.

Argüeso manufactures advanced technology investment casting wax blends for us and other companies with investment casting operations. In addition, Argüeso serves the machining industry with Rigidax® tooling compound, a patented product used to prevent part vibration or movement during a machining operation.

Greenville Metals, Inc. provides metallurgical process solutions and services worldwide for us and other companies that require the melting and processing of specialty alloys. Major markets include specialty alloy producers and foundries, permanent magnet and powder metal manufacturers and other industries with special metallurgical requirements.

Forged Products

We are among the leading manufacturers of forged components for the aerospace and power generation markets. Forged Products’ aerospace and IGT sales are primarily derived from the same large engine customers served by the Investment Cast Products segment, with additional aerospace sales to manufacturers of landing gear and other airframe structural components. Similarly, the dynamics of the aerospace and power generation markets, as described in the Investment Cast Products section above, are virtually the same for Forged Products. In addition, we manufacture high performance nickel-based alloys used to produce forged components for aerospace and non-aerospace markets which include products for oil and gas, chemical processing, and pollution control applications.

Forged Components

We manufacture forged components from sophisticated titanium and nickel-based alloys for jet engines, including fan discs, compressor discs, turbine discs, seals, spacers, shafts, hubs and cases. Our airframe structural components are used on both commercial and military aircraft and include landing gear beams, bulkheads, wing structures, engine mounts, struts and tail flaps and housings. These parts are made of titanium, steel or other alloys. We also provide forged products for use in power plants worldwide, as well as in oil and gas industry applications. These products include discs, spacers and valve components for land-based steam turbine and industrial gas turbine engines, as well as shafts, cases, and compressor and turbine discs for marine gas engines. We also produce a variety of mechanical and structural tubular forged products, primarily in the form of extruded, seamless pipe, for the domestic and international energy markets, which include coal and nuclear power plants, co-generation projects, and retrofit and life-extension applications. For naval defense applications, we supply forged components for propulsion systems on nuclear submarines and aircraft carriers, as well as forgings for pumps, valves and structural applications.

Our forging business, which employs six different manufacturing processes, involves heating titanium, steel or high-temperature nickel alloys and then shaping them through pressing or extrusion, using hydraulic and mechanical presses with capacities ranging up to 55,000 tons. The process employed is determined based on the raw materials and the product application. The six manufacturing processes are summarized below:

Open-Die Forging—In this process, the metal is pressed between dies that never completely surround the metal, thus allowing it to be observed during the process. This manufacturing method is used to create relatively simple, preliminary shapes to be processed further by closed-die forging.

Closed-Die Forging—Closed-die forging involves pressing heated metal into shapes and sizes determined by machined impressions in specially prepared dies that completely surround the metal. This process allows the metal to flow more easily within the die cavity and, thus, produces forgings with superior surface finish and tighter tolerances, with enhanced repeatability of the part shape.

Hammer Forging—This form of closed-die forging uses multiple impact blows to shape a component between specially contoured dies. Forging hammers can be classified into two main types: single action and counterblow. Our counterblow hammers, which couple upper and lower ram movement to produce the impact forces required for large components, can offer improved near-net-shape capability compared to conventional press forging. Hammer forging is one of the oldest forging processes; however, computer-controlled technology has enabled the process to meet modern manufacturing requirements.

Conventional/Multi-Ram—The closed-die, multi-ram process, which is employed on our 20,000 and 30,000 ton presses, enables us to produce complex forgings with multiple cavities, such as valve bodies, in a single heating and pressing cycle. Dies may be split on either a vertical or a horizontal plane, and shaped punches may be operated by side rams, piercing rams or both. This process also optimizes grain flow and uniformity of deformation and reduces machining requirements.

Isothermal Forging—Isothermal forging is a closed-die process in which the dies are heated to the same temperature as the metal being forged, typically in excess of 1,900 degrees Fahrenheit. Because the dies may oxidize at these elevated temperatures, this process is performed in a vacuum or inert gas atmosphere. Our isothermal press produces near-net shape components, requiring less machining by our customers.

Extrusion—The extrusion process is capable of producing thick-wall, seamless pipe, with outside diameters of up to 48 inches and a wall thickness from 0.5 inches up to 7 inches for applications in the power generation and oil and gas industries, including tension leg platforms, riser systems and production manifolds. Our 35,000-ton vertical extrusion press is one of the largest and most advanced in the world. In addition to solid metals, powdered materials can be compacted and extruded into forging billets with this press.

We believe that we are the world leader in producing forged rotating components for use in jet aircraft engines. These parts are forged from ingots, which are converted to billets in our cogging and extrusion presses and from metal powders (primarily nickel alloys) that are produced, consolidated and extruded into billets entirely in our own facilities. In addition, we purchase billets from outside metal suppliers.

High Performance Forging Alloys

In May 2006, we completed the acquisition of Special Metals Corporation (“SMC”), a world leader in the production of high-performance, nickel-based alloys and super alloys, principally used in the manufacture of forged components designed to operate under extreme conditions in gas turbines and other critical applications. SMC, in conjunction with our existing high performance alloy production facilities in western Australia and the U.S., provides us with an expanded internal supply of nickel-based alloys for our forging operations, which will enable us to better manage our overall value stream now and in the future.

With the acquisition of SMC, we are the world’s largest and most diversified producer of high performance nickel-based alloys, supplying over 5,000 customers. Our alloys, which provide high temperature strength and corrosion resistance, aqueous corrosion resistance, and toughness and strength in certain embrittling environments, are principally used to manufacture forged components required in the most technically demanding industries and applications. Although commercial and military aerospace represents the largest market served by SMC, other non-aerospace markets include high performance, nickel-based alloys for oil & gas, chemical & petrochemical processing, power generation, pollution control, automotive, thermal processing, electrical and heating elements, marine and welding applications.

Our alloying processes utilize electric arc, air induction, and vacuum induction melting (“VIM”) furnaces, while a few specialized alloys are made using a mechanical alloying process. Refining facilities include furnaces for Argon-Oxygen-Decarburization (“AOD”), vacuum arc remelting (VAR) and electroslag remelting (ESR). Our major hot finishing processes include rotary forging, plate rolling, bar rolling, press forging and extrusion of seamless tubulars and shapes. The latter two processes are extensions of other similar operations within the Forged Products segment. Cold finishing processes include cold rolled sheet and strip, tube and pipe pilgering, and cold drawing of bar and wire. The Company produces nickel alloys in all standard mill forms from large ingots and billets to plate, sheet, strip, tubing, bar and wire, the latter of which includes core and filler wires for welding products. The Company’s alloys are classified into unique families recognized worldwide and are sold under such trademarks as INCONEL®, INCOLOY®, MONEL®, NIMONIC®, UDIMET®, BRIGHTRAY®, and NILO®.

Fastener Products

With the acquisition of SPS Technologies, Inc., we have become a leading developer and manufacturer of highly engineered fasteners, fastener systems and precision components, primarily for critical aerospace and automotive applications. Approximately 73 percent of Fastener Products sales come from the same aerospace customer base already served by our Investment Cast Products and Forged Products segments. In this regard, Fastener Products is subject to many of the same market forces as these other two segments. The balance of the segment’s sales derives from automotive and general industrial markets, including farm machinery, construction equipment, machine tools, medical equipment, appliances and recreation.

Fastener manufacturing begins with wire or metal bar of various diameters, which is cut into fastener blanks of prescribed lengths and then heat treated. Using highly engineered tools and thread dies, the fastener blanks are then formed into complex head shapes and thread configurations to meet exacting customer requirements.

Our aerospace fasteners are manufactured from nickel and titanium alloys and are used on airframes, jet engines, aircraft wheels and brakes and landing gear assemblies. They are found in such flight- and safety-critical areas as the wing-to-fuselage, the stabilizers-to-fuselage and the engine-to-wing connections on an aircraft, as well as the airfoil-to-disc and disc-to-shaft connections on a jet engine. These fasteners are not only incorporated in new aircraft builds but are also integrally involved in the replacement cycle, particularly in aircraft engine and wheel and brake applications. The product line includes a variety of bolts, nuts, plate nuts, inserts, washers and other precision components. While the fasteners are produced to demanding customer designs, we continue to be active in developing several trademarked alloys for applications requiring high strength, elevated temperature, corrosion resistance and/or lighter weight. These include MULTIPHASE® and AEREX® nickel-based alloys and the SPS TITAN® family of titanium alloys.

Our engineered fasteners, manufactured from a variety of steel, nickel, and titanium alloys, are used in automotive applications, including power trains; suspensions; steering, airbag, and seating systems; and chassis assemblies. These products have also penetrated other markets requiring proven strength, close dimensional tolerance and high reliability, such as diesel, mining, construction, heavy truck and niche general industrial applications. We have developed a broad range of technically advanced proprietary products under the brand names of UNBRAKO®, FLEXLOC®, DURLOK® and DURLOK II®, TORX®, TRU-FLEX®, TAPTITE® and MAThread™.

In February 2007 we completed the acquisition of Cherry Aerospace LLC (“Cherry”), one of the leading manufacturers of aerospace blind rivets and blind bolts. Primarily used in structural applications, Cherry brand products are found on all major commercial and military aircraft in production or development today. In addition to enhancing our product portfolio of critical aerospace fasteners, this acquisition continued to grow our presence in Southern California, opening up potential synergies and economies of scale with our other fastener operations.

The Industrial Products Group includes our subsidiaries J&L Fiber Services, Advanced Forming Technology (“AFT”), Environmental One (“E/One”) and the PCC Precision Tool Group (“PTG”). J&L Fiber Services produces refiner plates and screen cylinders for use in the pulp and paper industry. AFT manufactures metal-injection-molded and ThixoFormed™ components for numerous industrial applications. E/One produces low-pressure sewer systems for residential and commercial applications and monitoring units utilized in the power generation industry. PTG manufactures a broad range of thread-rolling dies, trimming dies, punches and pins and steel and carbide forging tools for fastener production, principally for automotive, aerospace and general industrial and other applications.

   

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