Codexis inc   (CDXS)
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Codexis inc Segments


Business Segments I. Quarter
(in millions $)
(Mar 31 2021)
(of total Revenues)
I. Quarter
(in millions $)
(Mar 31 2021)
(Profit Margin)
18.03 100 % -9.07 -

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Growth rates by Segment I. Quarter
Y/Y Revenue
(Mar 31 2021)
Q/Q Revenue
I. Quarter
Y/Y Income
(Mar 31 2021)
Q/Q Income
-17.68 % -1.92 % - -

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  Codexis Inc 's

Business Segments Description

Protein Catalyst Products and Services
Our protein catalyst products and services can deliver value to our customers in multiple potential ways:

manufacture their products at lower cost

manufacture their products with lower fixed capital investment

reduce the cost of development of complex chemical synthesis processes

enable their products to achieve higher product purity

reduce the risk of adverse effects arising from product impurities

allow the removal of entire steps from chemical production

flexibility to apply at any point across their product’s lifecycle
Our products include protein catalysts, chemical intermediates and Codex® Biocatalyst Panels and Kits. We sell our products primarily through our directed sales and business development force in the United States and Europe.
In addition to products, we also offer R&D services to our customers. These R&D service agreements often contain service fee payments and intellectual property provisions under which we screen and/or engineer protein catalysts for customers in connection with their process development efforts. In these collaborations, we typically receive consideration in the form of one or more of the following: up-front payments, milestone payments, payments for screening and engineering services, licensing fees and royalties.

Protein Catalysts
We often sell protein catalysts (also referred to as biocatalysts or enzymes), by the gram or kilogram, that have been already been engineered, scaled up, and installed in a customer’s commercial process. For example, we sell protein catalysts to Merck for their manufacture of sitagliptin, the active ingredient in Januvia®. We also sell protein catalysts which are in developmental stages. These are enzymes that are sold in batches or by the gram or kilogram that are in the process of being engineered or scaled up by Codexis, or are in the process of being trialed or approved for use in the customer’s process. We may sell batches of specific protein catalysts that are in the middle of our protein engineering efforts to test their performance at a larger customer scale. We also may sell batches of specific protein catalysts for use in customer’s developmental products (for example, to trial in a customer’s Phase II drug candidate process). Finally, we may sell batches of specific protein catalysts as a customer performs trials for approval in their commercial manufacturing operations.

Chemical Intermediates
In some cases, we sell intermediate chemicals products that are produced in a process that uses our protein catalysts. These chemical intermediates are then used by our customer for further chemical processing.

Codex® Biocatalyst Panels and Kits
We sell kits and panels of our protein catalysts. These kits and panels assemble a relevant subset of our engineered enzymes to enable customers to perform chemistry screening on their own. These kits and panels are organized by specific types of chemical reactions that are widely applicable in the pharmaceutical and fine chemical markets.

Protein Catalyst Screening Services
If a customer prefers, rather than purchasing our Codex® Biocatalyst Panels or Kits to use for their own screening, they can send us their starting materials and desired chemical reaction, and we will test against our existing libraries of enzymes on an R&D service fee basis. If we detect desired activity in a specific enzyme, we can supply the customer with this enzyme or perform engineering services to improve the performance of the enzyme.
Protein Engineering Services
We work with our customers throughout their product development lifecycle to optimized enzymes that have been engineered specifically to perform a desired process according to a highly selective set of specifications. We typically charge customers on an R&D services basis by project or project-month. These are typically larger R&D service fees than screening services.
The protein engineering process starts by identifying genes that code for enzymes known to have the general type of catalytic reactivity for a desired chemical reaction. Typically, we identify gene sequences from our extensive in-house collection or from published databases and then synthesize candidate genes having those sequences. Using a variety of biotechnology tools, we diversify these genes by introducing mutations, giving rise to changes in the enzymes for which they encode. The methods for diversifying these genes, and types of diversity being tested, often vary over the course of a protein engineering program. For finding initial diversity, methods typically include random mutagenesis and site-directed (included computational structure-guided) mutagenesis. We also test mutational variations from related enzymes found in different organisms.

Once we have identified potentially beneficial mutations, we create libraries of thousands of variants with combinations of these mutations. With our proprietary genetic manipulation tools, we generate libraries of genes that have programmed and random combinations of the mutations for testing. The pool of genes is used to transform host cells, which entails introducing the various genes into host cells. These cells are then grown into colonies. Cells from individual colonies are cultured in high throughput to produce the enzyme encoded by the genetic variant in those cells. The enzymes expressed by these cells are then screened in high throughput using test conditions relevant to the desired process. The screening results allow us to identify and catalog individual genes that produce improved enzymes with beneficial mutations as well as enzymes having detrimental ones. Using specifically developed test conditions and analytical methods, we can identify variant enzymes that exhibit various improved performance characteristics, such as stability, activity and selectivity, under conditions relevant to the desired chemical process.
In the next step in our optimization process, we use our proprietary bioinformatics software to analyze protein sequence-activity relationships. Our software and algorithms relate the screening results to the mutations and ranks the individual and interacting protein sequence mutations with regard to their degree of benefit or detriment, relative to the process parameter(s) tested. Using this information, we can create a select pool of mutational diversity in the next iteration to further the accumulation of beneficial diversity and cancel out detrimental diversity in the individual genes in the resulting library. The gene that codes for the best performing enzyme in one iteration is used as the starting gene for the next iteration of recombination and screening. As the enzymes improve over these iterations, the screening conditions are made increasingly more stringent. In this way, the protein catalyst is rapidly optimized until all in-process performance requirements have been achieved and the economic objectives for the desired process have been met.

Pharmaceutical Market
We believe the pharmaceutical industry represents a significant market opportunity for us and is our primary business focus. Pharmaceutical companies are in constant search for new drugs to offer to their customers, and are under significant competitive pressure both to reduce costs and to increase the speed to market for their products. To meet these pressures, pharmaceutical companies are discovering and developing novel protein-based drug products, as well as seeking manufacturing processes for their new and existing drugs that reduce overall costs, simplify production and increase efficiency and product yield, while not affecting drug safety and efficacy. Cost reduction is even more important to developers (known as innovators) of patent-protected pharmaceutical products when the patents for those products expire and such innovators are forced to compete with manufacturers of generic drugs.

The pharmaceutical product lifecycle begins with the discovery of new chemical entities and continues through preclinical and clinical development, product launch, commercial scale-up and, ultimately, patent expiration and the transition from branded to generic products. As innovators develop, produce and then market products, manufacturing priorities and processes evolve. Historically, innovators have focused on production cost reduction in the later stages of clinical development and have been reluctant to make process changes after a product has been launched. However, as pressures to reduce costs have increased, innovators have pursued cost reduction measures much earlier in the pharmaceutical product lifecycle and are increasingly looking for opportunities to improve their operating margins, including making manufacturing process changes for marketed products after the products have been launched if these changes can result in significant cost reductions. As a result, innovators are investing in new technologies, including our CodeEvolver® protein engineering technology platform, to improve their manufacturing productivity and efficiency or outsourcing the manufacture of their intermediates and active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs).


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